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Please note that additional resources related the sulfate water quality standard to protect wild rice are available on the MPCA website.  

9/27 Meeting Materials:

MPCA Wild Rice Sulfate/Sulfide Overview Presentation

EPA Water Quality Standards

Administrative Law Judge Report and MPCA Response

10/11 Meeting Materials:

Fond du Lac Resources

Note: All .pdfs for open source literature are linked and uploaded on bolded author's names.

  1. MPCA. 2018. Analyzing Alternatives for Sulfate Treatment in Municipal Wastewater. Prepared by Bolton & Menk, Inc. and Barr Engineering Company. 84 pp.
  2. Fort, D.J., Mathis, M.B., Walker, R., Tuominen, L.K., Hansel, M., Hall, S., Richards, R., Grattan, S.R. and Anderson, K., 2014. Toxicity of sulfate and chloride to early life stages of wild rice (Zizania palustris). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 33(12), pp.2802-2809.
  3. Pastor, J., Dewey, B., Johnson, N.W., Swain, E.B., Monson, P., Peters, E.B. and Myrbo, A., 2017. Effects of sulfate and sulfide on the life cycle of Zizania palustris in hydroponic and mesocosm experiments. Ecological Applications. 27(1): 321-336. Open access:
  4. Ng, G.H., Yourd, A.R., Johnson, N.W. and Myrbo, A.E., 2017. Modeling hydrologic controls on sulfur processes in sulfate‐impacted wetland and stream sediments. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 122(9), pp.2435-2457.
  5. Pollman, C.D., Swain, E.B., Bael, D., Myrbo, A., Monson, P. and Shore, M.D., 2017. The evolution of sulfide in shallow aquatic ecosystem sediments: An analysis of the roles of sulfate, organic carbon, and iron and feedback constraints using structural equation modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 122: 2719-2735. Open access:
  6. Lamers, L.P., Govers, L.L., Janssen, I.C., Geurts, J.J., Van der Welle, M.E., Van Katwijk, M.M., Van der Heide, T., Roelofs, J.G. and Smolders, A.J., 2013. Sulfide as a soil phytotoxin—a review. Frontiers in plant science, 4, 268:1-14.
  7. Krüssel, L., L. Junemann, M. Wirtz, H. Birke, J.D. Thornton, L.W. Browning, G. Poschet, R. Hell, J. Balk, H-P. Braun, and T.M. Hildebrandt. 2014. The mitochondrial sulfur dioxygenase ETHYLMALONIC ENCEPHALOPATHY PROTEIN1 is required for amino acid catabolism during carbohydrate starvation and embryo development in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology. 165: 92–104.
  8. Myrbo, A., Swain, E.B., Johnson, N.W., Engstrom, D.R., Pastor, J., Dewey, B., Monson, P., Brenner, J., Dykhuizen Shore, M. and Peters, E.B., 2017. Increase in nutrients, mercury, and methylmercury as a consequence of elevated sulfate reduction to sulfide in experimental wetland mesocosms. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 122: 2769-2785. Open access: 
  9. LaFond-Hudson, S., Johnson, N.W., Pastor, J. and Dewey, B., Iron sulfide formation on root surfaces controlled by the life cycle of wild rice (Zizania palustris). Biogeochemistry, pp.1-12. 
  10. Fort, D.J., Todhunter, K., Fort, T.D., Mathis, M.B., Walker, R., Hansel, M., Hall, S., Richards, R. and Anderson, K., 2017. Toxicity of sulfide to early life stages of wild rice (Zizania palustris). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 36(8), pp.2217-2226. 
  11. MPCA. 2017 Final Technical Support Document: Refinements to Minnesota’s Sulfate Water Quality Standard to Protect Wild Rice. August 11, 2018. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. 151 pp. 
  12. Myrbo, A., Swain, E.B., Engstrom, D.R., Coleman Wasik, J., Brenner, J., Dykhuizen Shore, M., Peters, E.B. and Blaha, G., 2017. Sulfide generated by sulfate reduction is a primary controller of the occurrence of wild rice (Zizania palustris) in shallow aquatic ecosystems. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 122: 2736-2753. Open access:
  13. Ramboll. 2017. Draft sulfate standard equation: Options and basis for improvements. May 16, 2017, updated May 30 2017. 51 pp.


Role of Sulfate on Wild Rice Health

Tribal-State Relations and Tribal Consultation Panel

10/25 Meeting Materials:

Peter David Manoomin Presentation

Dr. Alexander Kahler Wild Rice Protection and Restoration Presentation

DNR Protection and Restoration Handout

10/26 Meeting Materials:

Gary Drotts Wild Rice Waters Presentation

MPCA Wiild Rice Waters Presentation

DNR Updated List of Rice Waters

11/08 Meeting Materials:

MPCA, Sulfate Treatment Legislative Fact Sheet

MPCA, Analyzing Alternatives for Sulfate Treatment in Municipal Wastewater

Presentation on Sulfate Treatment and Variance Process

12/6 Meeting Materials:

DNR 350 Water List